The third winner of National English Competition for Essay Writing 

By Bima Mhd Ghaluh

In the realm of classic literature, few works have achieved the level of enduring popularity as F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “The Great Gatsby.” First published in 1925, this novel continues to captivate audiences of all generations with its timeless themes, vivid characters, and evocative portrayal of the Roaring Twenties. With its masterful storytelling, profound exploration of the human condition, and the shimmering allure of the Jazz Age, “The Great Gatsby” has solidified its place as a literary masterpiece that stands the test of time.

“The Great Gatsby” transcends its time and place, resonating with readers across ages and cultures. Its enduring popularity can be attributed to a multitude of factors that intertwine to create a literary work of profound significance. From its exploration of captivating themes to its portrayal of unforgettable characters, this novel continues to leave an indelible mark on the literary landscape. In the following sections, I will delve into the factors that contribute to the unwavering popularity of “The Great Gatsby.” We will examine the timeless themes that underpin the narrative, the complexity of its characters, the exquisite writing style that brings the story to life, and its reflection of the Jazz Age. Furthermore, I will explore the influence of the novel on popular culture, solidifying its place not only in the minds of avid readers but also in the broader cultural consciousness. Join me on this literary journey as we unravel the enigmatic allure of “The Great Gatsby” and discover why it continues to captivate and resonate with audiences nearly a century after its initial publication.

Image result for The Great Gatsby Novel. Size: 146 x 219. Source:
Captivating Themes

One of the primary reasons behind the sustained popularity of “The Great Gatsby” lies in its exploration of captivating themes. Fitzgerald masterfully weaves together a tapestry of themes that resonate with readers on a profound level. These themes transcend time and place, touching upon universal aspects of the human experience.

The American Dream

At the heart of “The Great Gatsby” is the exploration of the American Dream and its elusive nature. Through the character of Jay Gatsby, Fitzgerald delves into the idea of the dream itself, the belief that anyone can ascend the social ladder and achieve material and social success. Gatsby embodies the self-made man, driven by an unwavering desire to win back the love of Daisy Buchanan and to prove himself to the world.
However, Fitzgerald presents a more nuanced view of the American Dream. While Gatsby appears to have attained the trappings of success, the novel exposes the hollowness and emptiness that can lie beneath the surface of wealth and glamour. The pursuit of material wealth and social status becomes a mirage, ultimately leaving characters disillusioned and unfulfilled.

The Illusion of Love

Love, or the illusion of love, is another compelling theme in “The Great Gatsby.” The characters in the novel are driven by their desires for love and connection, yet these desires are often distorted by their own personal ambitions and the societal expectations of the time. The pursuit of love becomes entangled with the pursuit of wealth and status, blurring the lines between genuine affection and superficial attraction. The tragic love triangle between Gatsby, Daisy, and Tom Buchanan exemplifies the illusory nature of love in the novel. Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is not based on a deep emotional connection but rather on the idealized image of her that he has created in his mind. Daisy, too, is drawn to Gatsby’s wealth and the excitement he represents, rather than genuine love. This exploration of love as a fragile construct built upon fantasy and illusion resonates with readers, as it echoes the complexities and uncertainties of real-life relationships.

The Corruption of Wealth

Fitzgerald exposes the corrupting influence of wealth in “The Great Gatsby,” highlighting the moral decay and emptiness that can accompany material success. The opulence and excesses of the Jazz Age provide the backdrop for the novel, with lavish parties and extravagant displays of wealth. However, beneath the glittering surface lies a world riddled with moral and ethical compromises. Characters like Tom and Daisy Buchanan exemplify the moral bankruptcy that can accompany extreme wealth. They are insulated from the consequences of their actions, using their privilege to manipulate and control those around them. Gatsby himself is not immune to the allure of wealth, as he amasses his fortune through illegal means in a desperate attempt to win back Daisy. Through these characters, Fitzgerald exposes the dark underbelly of the wealthy elite, challenging the idea that material wealth equates to happiness or moral superiority. The exploration of these captivating themes in “The Great Gatsby” contributes to its enduring popularity. Fitzgerald’s nuanced portrayal of the American Dream, the illusion of love, and the corruption of wealth resonates with readers, inviting them to reflect on their own desires, aspirations, and the complexities of the human condition.

Timeless Characters

One of the remarkable aspects of “The Great Gatsby” is the creation of unforgettable characters who continue to captivate readers with their complexity, flaws, and inner struggles. F. Scott Fitzgerald breathed life into these characters, allowing them to transcend the pages of the novel and take up residence in the hearts and minds of readers. Let us meet some of these remarkable individuals:

Jay Gatsby

At the center of the narrative stands the mysterious and enigmatic Jay Gatsby. Gatsby’s larger-than-life persona and his relentless pursuit of his version of the American Dream make him an iconic literary figure. Born into poverty, Gatsby reinvents himself as a self-made millionaire, embodying the relentless ambition and determination that define the Jazz Age. His grandiose parties, his extravagant lifestyle, and his undying love for Daisy Buchanan all contribute to his complex character. Gatsby represents the paradoxical nature of the American Dream. While he appears to have achieved unimaginable success, his underlying motivations and the emptiness that plagues him reveal the darker side of the pursuit of wealth and social status. Gatsby’s yearning for the past and his inability to let go of his illusions serve as a cautionary tale about the dangers of living in a world built on illusions and unattainable dreams.

Daisy Buchanan

Daisy Buchanan, the object of Gatsby’s affection, epitomizes the allure and complexity of the Jazz Age woman. Her beauty, charm, and sophistication mask a deeper longing for meaning and purpose in her life. Daisy is caught between her love for Gatsby and the stability and security provided by her husband, Tom Buchanan. Her wavering between these two men highlights the tension between personal desires and societal expectations. Fitzgerald portrays Daisy as a victim of her circumstances, bound by the constraints of her gender and social class. Despite her apparent privilege, she is ultimately trapped in a loveless marriage and unable to make autonomous decisions. Daisy’s character serves as a reflection of the limited agency afforded to women during the 1920s, shedding light on the societal pressures and inequalities of the time.

Nick Carraway

As the narrator and the gateway into the world of “The Great Gatsby,” Nick Carraway provides readers with an outsider’s perspective on the events unfolding around him. Nick is both a participant and an observer, allowing us to gain insight into the lives and motivations of the other characters. His moral compass and his ability to see beyond the surface appearances make him a relatable and trustworthy guide throughout the novel. Through Nick’s eyes, we witness the extravagance of the Jazz Age, as well as the moral decay and disillusionment that lie beneath the surface. His growing disillusionment with the world he encounters sheds light on the larger themes of the novel, serving as a voice of reason and a moral anchor amidst the chaos and corruption.

Supporting Characters
“The Great Gatsby” is replete with numerous supporting characters who add depth and richness to the narrative. Characters like Tom Buchanan, Jordan Baker, and Meyer Wolfsheim each bring their own set of complexities, flaws, and motivations to the story. Tom represents the embodiment of privilege and toxic masculinity, while Jordan embodies the liberated, independent woman of the 1920s. Meyer Wolfsheim, with his shady business dealings, symbolizes the corrupt underbelly of the Jazz Age. The timeless nature of these characters lies in their ability to reflect universal aspects of humanity. Their hopes, desires, flaws, and struggles resonate with readers from various backgrounds and across different time periods. We see in them a reflection of our own complexities and contradictions, allowing us to connect with the story on a deeply personal level.

Exquisite Writing Style, Descriptive Imagery

Fitzgerald’s descriptive imagery transports the reader into the opulent world of the Jazz Age. From the glittering lights of Gatsby’s parties to the lush gardens of West Egg, the vividness of Fitzgerald’s descriptions allows readers to immerse themselves in the decadence and excesses of the era. For example, Fitzgerald writes, “In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars.” This evocative imagery creates a sensory experience for the reader, heightening the emotional impact of the story.


Symbolism is another hallmark of Fitzgerald’s writing style in “The Great Gatsby.” Through the use of symbols, Fitzgerald imbues his narrative with deeper meanings and layers of interpretation. The most famous symbol in the novel is the green light at the end of Daisy’s dock, which represents Gatsby’s hopes and dreams for the future. The symbolic use of color throughout the novel, such as the color yellow to represent wealth and decay, adds richness and complexity to the story. Fitzgerald’s skillful incorporation of symbolism allows readers to engage with the text on multiple levels, uncovering hidden messages and themes.

Rhythm and Language

Fitzgerald’s prose has a rhythmic quality that flows effortlessly from one sentence to the next. His sentences are often short, crisp, and filled with precise details, creating a sense of energy and momentum. This rhythmic quality mirrors the pulsating spirit of the Jazz Age and the fast-paced nature of Gatsby’s world. Furthermore, Fitzgerald’s use of language is eloquent and poetic, as he carefully selects words and phrases that evoke a specific mood or atmosphere. His descriptions of characters, such as Daisy’s voice being “full of money,” are both striking and memorable. This meticulous attention to language adds depth to the characters and enhances the overall reading experience.

Narrative Structure

Fitzgerald experiments with narrative structure in “The Great Gatsby,” utilizing the technique of a framed narrative. The story is framed through the perspective of Nick Carraway, who serves as both a participant and an observer. This narrative structure allows for multiple layers of storytelling, as Nick recounts his experiences with Gatsby and the other characters while reflecting on the events in hindsight. The use of Nick as the narrator adds a layer of reliability and introspection to the narrative, inviting readers to question the nature of memory, perception, and storytelling itself. The exquisite writing style of F. Scott Fitzgerald in “The Great Gatsby” elevates the novel beyond a mere tale of love and wealth. His descriptive imagery, symbolism, rhythmic language, and innovative narrative structure contribute to the enduring legacy of the novel. Fitzgerald’s writing transports readers to a bygone era, where they can immerse themselves in the complexities and contradictions of the human experience.

Reflection of the Jazz Age: Excess and Extravagance

The Jazz Age was characterized by a spirit of excess and extravagance, fueled by newfound wealth and a booming economy. This era saw the rise of the nouveau riche, individuals who amassed great fortunes and were eager to showcase their newfound social status. In “The Great Gatsby,” this excess is exemplified through the lavish parties hosted by Jay Gatsby, where champagne flowed, music played, and guests reveled in opulence. Fitzgerald’s vivid descriptions of Gatsby’s parties capture the frenetic energy and decadence that defined the Jazz Age.

Breaking Social Norms

The 1920s marked a period of significant social change, as traditional norms and values were challenged and, in some cases, disregarded. Women gained a newfound sense of freedom and independence, rejecting the restrictive norms of the past. In “The Great Gatsby,” this is embodied by characters like Jordan Baker, a professional golfer who defies societal expectations for women. Fitzgerald’s portrayal of liberated, independent women reflects the changing roles and aspirations of women during the Jazz Age.

Moral Decay and Disillusionment

Beneath the glitz and glamour of the Jazz Age, there was an undercurrent of moral decay and disillusionment. The pursuit of wealth and pleasure often came at the expense of moral integrity and genuine human connection. We see this theme echoed in “The Great Gatsby” through the actions and attitudes of characters such as Tom Buchanan, who engages in extramarital affairs without remorse, and the shallow socialites who attend Gatsby’s parties for their own self-serving purposes. Fitzgerald’s portrayal of this moral decay serves as a critique of the superficiality and emptiness that can accompany a society obsessed with material wealth.

The Illusion of the American Dream

The Jazz Age was defined by the idea of the American Dream, the belief that anyone could achieve success and prosperity through hard work and determination. However, Fitzgerald presents a more nuanced and cautionary view of the American Dream in “The Great Gatsby.” Through Gatsby’s relentless pursuit of wealth and social status, we witness the hollowness and futility of basing one’s happiness solely on material possessions. Gatsby’s tragic fate highlights the dangers of chasing an elusive dream that can never truly satisfy the human soul.

Cultural and Artistic Explosion

The Jazz Age was not only known for its social and economic changes but also for its cultural and artistic explosion. Jazz music, with its lively rhythms and improvisational nature, became the soundtrack of the era. The novel’s title itself captures the spirit of this musical genre, and Fitzgerald’s prose reflects the syncopated rhythms and vibrant energy of jazz. Additionally, the vibrant art deco aesthetic of the time finds its way into the descriptions of Gatsby’s lavish mansion and the glamorous settings of the novel. “The Great Gatsby” serves as a reflection of the Jazz Age, capturing its excesses, breaking of social norms, moral complexities, and the allure of the American Dream. Through his vivid storytelling and compelling characters, F. Scott Fitzgerald provides us with a glimpse into this transformative period of American history.

Influence on Popular Culture:  Literature and Film

“The Great Gatsby” has inspired countless authors and filmmakers, who have sought to capture the allure and tragedy of the Jazz Age. Its themes of love, wealth, and the pursuit of the American Dream continue to resonate with audiences today. The novel’s complex characters and intricate plot have provided a rich source of inspiration for adaptations into film and television, with notable versions released in 1974, 2000, and 2013. These adaptations have introduced new generations to the story and further solidified its place in popular culture.

Fashion and Style

“The Great Gatsby” has had a profound influence on fashion and style, particularly in its depiction of the glamorous flapper era. The novel’s portrayal of opulent parties, extravagant fashion, and glittering jewelry has been emulated and reinterpreted in numerous fashion collections over the years. The iconic flapper dress, with its dropped waistline, beaded embellishments, and fringed hem, remains a symbol of 1920s fashion and continues to inspire designers to this day.

Music and Soundtracks

The vibrant spirit of the Jazz Age permeates the pages of “The Great Gatsby,” and this influence extends to the realm of music. Jazz, the quintessential music of the era, forms a natural connection with the novel. Jazz standards and songs from the Roaring Twenties have been prominently featured in film adaptations of “The Great Gatsby,” adding an atmospheric and nostalgic element to the storytelling. These evocative soundtracks transport listeners back to the extravagant parties and emotional depth of Fitzgerald’s world.

Cultural and Social Commentary

“The Great Gatsby” is more than just a captivating story; it also serves as a powerful cultural and social commentary. The novel explores themes of class, wealth disparity, and the illusion of the American Dream, issues that continue to resonate with contemporary society. Its critique of materialism, moral decay, and the consequences of a society obsessed with appearances remains relevant today. “The Great Gatsby” prompts us to reflect on our own values and societal priorities, challenging us to question the pursuit of wealth and status at the expense of genuine human connection.

Enduring Legacy

“The Great Gatsby” has firmly established itself as a timeless literary classic, a work that continues to captivate readers and spark conversations. Its influence on popular culture reflects the enduring power of Fitzgerald’s storytelling and his exploration of universal themes. As new generations discover and engage with the novel, its impact will continue to evolve and inspire, ensuring that “The Great Gatsby” remains an integral part of our cultural consciousness.


In conclusion, “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald stands as a captivating reflection of the Jazz Age, with its excesses, breaking of social norms, moral decay, and the allure of the American Dream. The novel’s timeless characters, such as Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan, continue to captivate readers with their complexity and depth. Fitzgerald’s exquisite writing style, characterized by lyrical prose and vivid descriptions, adds a layer of beauty and artistry to the narrative. Furthermore, the influence of “The Great Gatsby” on popular culture is far-reaching. It has inspired numerous adaptations in literature, film, and television, ensuring its enduring presence in the cultural zeitgeist. The novel’s impact is also evident in the realms of fashion, with its portrayal of 1920s glamour influencing designers and fashion trends. Additionally, the Jazz Age soundtrack that accompanies adaptations of the novel revives the spirit of the roaring twenties, adding to its cultural resonance. In essence, “The Great Gatsby” is a literary masterpiece that continues to captivate audiences with its captivating themes, timeless characters, and exquisite writing style. Its influence on popular culture is a testament to its enduring legacy, cementing its place as a cornerstone of American literature and a reflection of an iconic era in history.


Cain, W. E. (2020). American Dreaming: Really Reading The Great Gatsby. Society, 57(4), 453–470.
Dewalt, R. (2016). Tom’s Investigation: The Development of the Surveillance Theme in the Composition of The Great Gatsby. The F. Scott Fitzgerald Review, 14(1), 110–135.
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald | Goodreads. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2023, from
Wolfsdorf, A. (2019). Mourning and Melancholia in The Great Gatsby. The F. Scott Fitzgerald Review, 17(1), 233–247.